Why did African countries struggle after independence?
One of the most pressing challenges African states faced at Independence was their lack of infrastructure. Rich as many African countries were in cash crops and minerals, they could not process these goods themselves. Their economies were dependent on trade, and this made them vulnerable.
How did the Bantu migrations change the history of Africa?
The Bantu Migration had an enormous impact on Africa’s economic, cultural, and political practices. Bantu migrants introduced many new skills into the communities they interacted with, including sophisticated farming and industry. These skills included growing crops and forging tools and weapons from metal.
How did the geography of Africa affect its development?
The geography of Africa helped to shape the history and development of the culture and civilizations of Ancient Africa. The geography impacted where people could live, important trade resources such as gold and salt, and trade routes that helped different civilizations to interact and develop.
Why is there so much ethnic conflict in Africa?
Causes of Ethnic Conflict. Economic factors have been identified as one of the major causes of conflict in Africa. Theorists believe that competition for scarce resources is a common factor in almost all ethnic conflicts in Africa. It follows that multi-ethnic countries are likely to experience distributional conflicts …
What factors helped African nations win independence?
World War II helped Africa move towards independence because the war emphasized independence for everyone throughout the world. Additionally, the European nations could no longer afford to maintain the African colonies. Their money went toward war needs.
What skills did the Bantu spread through Africa?
Bantu-speakers in West Africa moved into new areas in very small groups, usually just families. But they brought with them the Bantu technology and language package—iron, crops, cattle, pottery, and more. These pioneers then shared their more advanced technologies (and, in the process, their languages) with the locals.
Why is Africa called the Dark Continent?
Africa was known as the “Dark Continent” because it remained unexplored for a fairly long period of time. Factors that made is difficult for the explorer to venture in to the continent of africa were: The largest desert in the world, the Sahara Desert acted as a natural barrier for the European explorers.
Did Africa have civilizations?
General History Africa’s first great civilization emerged in ancient Egypt in c. 3400 BC. Carthage was founded by Phoenicians in the 9th century BC. Ancient civilization, based around the River Nile in Egypt, which emerged 5,000 years ago and reached its peak in the 16th century BC.
Why is Africa called the Dark continent?
What are the causes of ethnic conflicts?
Ethnic conflict arises if ethnic groups compete for the same goal—notably power, access to resources, or territory. The interests of a society’s elite class play an important role in mobilizing ethnic groups to engage in ethnic conflicts. Ethnic conflict is thus similar to other political interest conflicts.
How is ethnic conflict resolved?
Techniques of ethnic conflict resolution, such as that of negotiation, can work effectively only when they are governed by this metaprinciple. In this regard, the effectiveness depends also on participation of the state in interethnic conflict resolution, particularly by means of policies of identity recognition.
Is the prevalence of ethnic diversity in Africa a challenge to democracy?
The prevalence of ethnic diversity in Africa is not the challenge to democracy in Africa, tribalism is (Juma, 2012). Many African countries have reverted to tribal identities as foundations for political competition (Juma, 2012).
Which is the most culturally diverse country in Africa?
Head to Chad in north-central Africa where 8.6 million residents belong to more than 100 ethnic groups or to Togo, home to 37 tribal groups that speak one of 39 languages and share little in the way of a common culture or history.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of ethnicity?
As we can see, ethnicity has its advantages and disadvantages but it is upon us to choose what is good for ourselves and leave what is not beneficial. We should choose to embrace and appreciate both our ethnic groups as well as others; this promotes peace. We should also not embrace the outdated cultures of our ethnic groups.
What was expected of Sub-Saharan Africa after independence?
Most African peoples, at the time of independence, were thought to be in the process of becoming ethnic groups and living in plural societies where cultural differences would be accepted. This has not happened. After independence, sub-Saharan African countries were expected to develop political systems styled after Western democracies.